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The Litigation Consulting Report

Should You Read Documents Out Loud at Trial?

Posted by Ken Lopez on Mon, Oct 10, 2016 @ 01:58 PM

reading-documents-call-out-trial-style.jpgby Ken Lopez
Founder/CEO
A2L Consulting

I’ve seen a great many lawyers read documents aloud at trials, and, not coincidentally, I’ve seen lawyers lose cases in part because they did so. Both experience and the science of persuasion tell us that reading documents to a jury is a persuasion killer. But of course there are times when you absolutely need to read a document out loud. This article will help you find the best ways to do so when it is necessary.

There are at least five good reasons why reading documents out loud is harmful. I will go through them, then offer three guidelines for reading passages of text to a jury or judge when it is necessary. After all, it’s hard to imagine trying a contract case without reading the key provisions of the contract.

  1. The split-attention effect/redundancy effect is easy to recognize, and we've all experienced it. In summary, if you are presented with a written document and it is read to you at the same time, your brain will have a hard time sorting out whether to read or to listen. What you might not know is that you actually end up far worse off reading written materials while seeing an image of those materials than you would have if you had just done one or the other -- read the materials or listened to the words. See The Redundancy Effect, PowerPoint and Legal Graphics.

  2. Related closely to the split attention the fact is the fact that people read faster than you speak. So if you present both formats, whether you know it or not, you have just started a little competition with your audience. They try to read faster than you. See 
    Why Reading Your Litigation PowerPoint Slides Hurts Jurors.
  1. People have written books about why this is a bad practice. Just read Cliff Atkinson’s Beyond Bullet Points, www.beyondbulletpoints.com.
  1. There's more science about this than you probably think. Chris Atherton's work is superb on this topic, and here's a video about it. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OwOuVc1Qrlg
  1. If you read out loud to people, you'll probably bore them. See Could Surprise Be One of Your Best Visual Persuasion Tools?

So, now that you have an idea about why reading documents is bad, how do we deal with the fact that some documents just need to be read? To deal with that, you will likely have to embrace new habits and learn new skills.

First, assuming that you are presenting from Trial Director or PowerPoint, you're going to need to learn when and how to turn off the projector. In PowerPoint you do this by pressing the bulb symbol, which toggles the screen to and from a black screen. In Trial Director, assuming that you are making appropriate use of a trial technician’s experience and professionalism by having a technician run the equipment in the courtroom, just say, “Dim the screen please.” When you do this, the jury should stare at you and pay close attention.

Second, you should choose passages of text to read that are as short as possible. I recommend never reading more than a sentence or two.

Third, try to become comfortable with pausing and giving people a chance to read. Look at the document yourself and read along quietly in your head. You'll get a feeling for how long people need, and you will keep the factfinders engaged. If you now want to highlight some key language, highlight it and ask the jury to focus on that piece again, then pause again. Then dim the screen, briefly reread it and then explain why it's important. Scientifically, this is your single best approach to maximize persuasion. I acknowledge it feels different and tedious, but so once did washing your hands before surgery.

Other articles from A2L Consulting discussing presenting orally and with documents, the redundancy effect, and using science to persuade:

complex civil litigation ebook free

Tags: Trial Graphics, Litigation Graphics, Trial Presentation, Demonstrative Evidence, Presentation Graphics, Psychology, Redundancy Effect, Document Call-Outs

The Effective Use of PowerPoint Presentation During Opening Statement

Posted by Lorraine Kestle on Fri, Dec 11, 2015 @ 10:15 AM

powerpoint-opening-statements-litigation-graphics-trialby Lorraine Kestle
Graphic Designer
A2L Consulting

The age-old adage that there are two sides (at least) to every story is clearly evident in litigation. Both parties believe that the applicable law, when applied to the facts, supports their position, or they likely would not be going to court. The parties and the lawyers are familiar with the facts and the law. Everyone fully understands the nuances of their position.

Everyone, that is, but the judge and jury who are hearing the case for the first time. It is these “novices to the case” who will ultimately decide which version of the facts or story is most persuasive.

For one day, I was a “novice to the case” in the courtroom as I helped our trial technician set up for a PowerPoint presentation in court. I observed both sides’ opening statements as well as the direct and cross-examinations.

Although I have been in the courtroom on numerous occasions, I had no prior knowledge of the substance of this matter and did not work on this presentation. Our client, the plaintiff in this case, delivered an opening statement that was enhanced with a PowerPoint presentation, while opposing counsel relied on typed or handwritten notes and an easel with a large paper tablet. After observing both approaches, I came away with what I think are interesting conclusions about the effect that the PowerPoint presentation had on my understanding of the case, the attorney’s arguments, and my initial impression of liability.

1. An Increased Perception Of Preparation, Competence And Persuasion

As a former paralegal, I know that preparation is one of the keys to success in litigation. And while I believe both sides were equally prepared, this was not the impression created in the courtroom by defendant’s counsel. What set the opening statements apart was the PowerPoint presentation used by our client. It served as a baseline of comparison for what followed.

The PowerPoint presentation not only emphasized key components of the opening statement, but it also added an air of competency and depth to the arguments being made. There was a clear, logical, and concise flow of information that was easy to follow. The visual presentation and callouts of relevant portions of emails and the employment contract clearly substantiated the verbal argument. This ultimately increased the impact of and the persuasive value of the opening statement. I have a clear visual picture of those emails and the contract that were the cornerstone evidence in the plaintiff’s case, even if I cannot recall the exact wording.

When defendant’s counsel did not use any visual or graphic presentations to support the opening statement, my first thought was, “Why is that?” My focus was not where it should have been; it was not on what he was saying. In fact, I was distracted by the numerous sheets of paper defense counsel brought to the podium and the yellow Post-it notes that were on it. It gave me the impression that they were less prepared than the plaintiff, which may or may not be the case. Nonetheless, this was my initial impression and I think ultimately influenced my view of their argument.

2. Increased Retention of Evidence Presented

For me, the evidence presented had greater weight when I could actually see the email communications that were made and the contract that was signed by the defendant. The document exhibit callouts, in particular, which supported the plaintiff’s arguments, became visually imprinted on my mind. And I received no other visual images from the defendant to compare or contrast them with. When I look back on that day, it is the callouts that I recall. This is what I remember, more than three days later.

3. Increased Attention to Arguments

When you are sitting behind the bar in the courtroom, you have a limited view of the exhibits and evidence being presented. However, when the PowerPoint slides were tied into the court’s monitors, it was much easier to see the evidence being offered. I found that I paid closer attention to the arguments being made; I was actively engaged in “looking” at the evidence to see if I agreed with what the lawyer was saying.   I could see that everyone, including the judge, was looking at the courtroom monitors.

On the other hand, when the defendant’s counsel was creating a live, hand-drawn organizational chart during cross-examination, not only could I not see it due to its orientation in the courtroom, I felt that it was too far away from the individual who was testifying and the judge. It was more difficult to follow the argument being made.

In conclusion, when I left court that day, I felt that the opening statement set the tone for everything that followed. The effective use of a PowerPoint presentation during the trial enhanced the arguments being made and, at the end of the day, our client prevailed. I can’t say I’m surprised at the outcome. They had me during opening statements.

Other A2L Consulting articles and resources related to persuading with graphics, opening statements and using words and pictures in a complimentary way:

opening statements toolkit ebook download a2l  

Tags: Trial Graphics, Litigation Graphics, Demonstrative Evidence, Psychology, PowerPoint, Opening, Document Call-Outs, Trial Boards

5 Tips for Displaying Documents Well at Trial [CVN Video]

Posted by Ken Lopez on Wed, Jun 11, 2014 @ 03:45 PM

 

document highlight callout trial technology technicianby Ken Lopez
Founder/CEO
A2L Consulting

Have you noticed how hard it is for lawyers at medium and large law firms to improve the way they try cases?

First, with so much pressure to bill hours, who has the time to watch a trial live and learn from it. Second, it's not like law school prepared any of us to try a case all that well. Third, there are other demands on a litigator's time such as the push to market and sell to new clients. Fourth, very few clients would be willing to pay a litigator to watch a trial even if it was similar to a client's case, involved opposing experts, was being tried by the same judge, or even if it involved the same opposing counsel.

Add to these points the fact that most litigators may only make it to trial once every couple of years, and you have to ask: How is a litigator supposed to learn to be a litigator?

CLEs? In-house training? Neither are all that effective. One might hope to watch trials on TV, but Court TV essentially ceased useful operations, and the trials that are televised are not normally being tried by America's best trial counsel.

So, in the spirit of improving the way cases are tried, I'm thrilled to make an announcement that I hope will offer one new method for litigators, whether green or veteran, to improve the way they try cases.

In partnership with the Courtroom View Network (CVN), starting today, A2L Consulting will begin publishing a series of articles that will use video collected by CVN, the premier provider of video in the courts, to help teach lessons and offer tips using real trials.

Today's video allows us to examine how best to use document callouts and how best to work with your trial technician. In the Wisconsin lead paint product liability case of Thomas v. Mallett, plaintiff's trial counsel uses highlighted documents to make a point during closing arguments (2-minute clip below).

Counsel is wise to rely on images of old documents to describe the appropriate standard for warning plaintiff about the dangers of lead-based paints. The age of the documents gives them more weight and suggests that the long list of defendants had ample notice.

Counsel is also smart to rely on another person to run the electronic evidence display for him. It's not clear whether the person is an experienced trial technician or part of counsel's staff.

Counsel is also smart to use highlighting on the documents as part of the trial presentation. It's not clear whether these highlights were made in Trial Director or were simply handled in PowerPoint. I suspect the latter.

There are a handful of areas where counsel could have improved how they displayed these documents. Here are five ways any trial attorney can improve the way they display documents at trial.

  1. Live Callouts and Highlights: In contrast to the video above, when possible, A2L's trial technicians prefer to create highlights and callouts live as shown in this video linked here focused on the use of Trial Director in trial and arbitrations. While this technique requires a skilled and experienced trial technician, the live highlighting gives the experience more authenticity, and I believe it draws jurors into the experience better than a canned highlight.

  2. Practice. Clearly a bit more practice with the trial technician would have led to a smoother trial presentation in the Thomas v. Mallett case. There is some unnecessary back and forth on the slides. Slides are shown out of order, and I'm not a big fan of counsel saying "next slide" unless they are way off script. I prefer a polished approach that is typical of high-end trial techs and litigators. See 11 Traits of Great Courtroom Trial Technicians and 8 Trial Technician-Related Tips for Midsized Law Firms.

  3. Don't Show Your Back. I don't think it is a good idea to turn your back on any audience to look at a slide and that certainly includes a jury. If A2L were handling the technology set up in the courtroom, we would have positioned a display so that counsel always knew which slide was being shown on screen without turning around.

  4. More Refinement. I would have considered a more polished look for the document callouts. There are many ways to handle a document callout at trial, and I think the approach used in Thomas v. Mallet case looks a bit cheap. Jurors today expect a high-tech approach not a small-town lawyer approach.

  5. Legibility. Some of the callouts have the text retyped and some do not. Unless it is advantageous to make text illegible, I generally prefer to see a retyped callout or one that is created live as described in #1 above. Furthermore, a pet peeve of mine is when someone creates a highlight by simply drawing a transparent yellow box in PowerPoint over the text being highlighted thus making it gray and harder to read. It's more work, but a professional litigation graphics firm like ours would separate the text from the background and layer it OVER the yellow box. This way you get clear dark text PLUS the highlight effect.

After a five-week trial, the jury found for the defendants in this case. Video from this trial and countless others can be purchased at CVN.

Articles related to using trial technicians, using document callouts and highlights and using trial technology that appear on A2L Consulting's site appear below:

trial technician trial technology courtroom technology consultants new york texas florida california boston virginia

Tags: Trial Graphics, Trial Technicians, Litigation Graphics, Trial Presentation, Hot Seat Operators, Trial Technology, Document Call-Outs

11 Traits of Great Courtroom Trial Technicians

Posted by Laurie Kuslansky on Tue, Jan 28, 2014 @ 01:00 PM

 

trial technician consultants hot seat new york los angeles edtx washingtonby Laurie R. Kuslansky, Ph.D.
Managing Director, Jury & Trial Consulting
A2L Consulting

A trial technician, also known as a hot-seat operator, has an incredibly challenging job. He or she needs to manage the minute-by-minute display of evidence at a trial. Often that means bringing up deposition video that has already been synchronized with the deposition transcript, or being able to bring up one of thousands or even millions of documents on a moment’s notice. In addition, a great hot-seat operator must understand what the litigator needs to prove at trial and what the pitfalls may be. He or she must almost feel like a “second skin” to the trial lawyer and must anticipate problems that will inevitably occur in the proof of the case.

Here are 11 characteristics of a great trial technician. 

  1. They anticipate problems and solve them before they happen. Typically, the trial technician is able to respond to requests from the litigator at trial almost before the requests are made.
     
  2. They exude calm and confidence, even when everyone around them is tense.
     
  3. They don’t just flash massive amounts of text on screen that no one can read. Instead, they know how and when to enlarge and highlight key portions. They have an instinctive feeling for what will be relevant to a jury.
     
  4. They are a source of solutions and better ways to achieve the presenter’s goals. It’s amazing how often a bright and qualified person ends up being a hindrance rather than a help to a litigator’s goals.
     
  5. They disagree when it’s in the best interest of the client. The excellent trial technician sees things not only in terms of the law but also in terms of how they will fare before a jury and is unafraid to state his or her opinion.
     
  6. They are quick on their feet and always on their toes. You only have to tell them what you want once and they get it.
     
  7. They’re flexible and make changes on short notice without a fuss. A great trial technician can make significant changes in a presentation without calling attention to himself or herself.
     
  8. They are highly professional and blend well into the trial team.
     
  9. A great trial technician is realistic about the limitations of the technology and the time it takes to perform certain tasks, so they can advise counsel to help prioritize for the best outcome.
     
  10. Even when the presenter fumbles, the great trial technician can keep going and help the lawyer stay on track.
     
  11. The great trial technician is an excellent communicator who can put even the novice technology user at ease.
Interested in learning more about how to find or best use trial technicians and trial technology in court? Download our third-edition e-book on the topic here, Trial Technicians & Trial Technology - A Litigator's Guide or call Alex Brown, Director of Operations, 800.337.9697, brown@a2lc.com.
 
trial technician trial technology courtroom technology consultants new york texas florida california boston virginia

Tags: Trial Graphics, Trial Technicians, Litigation Graphics, Trial Presentation, Courtroom Presentations, Trial Technology, Presentation Graphics, Document Call-Outs, Depositions

3 Styles of Document Call-outs Used at Trial

Posted by Ken Lopez on Fri, Apr 13, 2012 @ 11:35 AM


document callout call-out legal graphicsWhenever a litigation team presents a document in a graphic way to the jury or other fact-finder at trial, there is an occasion for a document call-out. A “document call-out” is a term of art that means taking a document that is in evidence at trial and highlighting some key portion of it for easy reading and to draw the viewer's attention to the key language.

There are three usual ways to perform a document call-out: With trial presentation software such as TrialDirector, with a static exhibit with something highlighted, and with a PowerPoint presentation.

Each of these techniques has its pluses and minuses, and within each of these options there are various styles. Here is a summary of the pros and cons.

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1.  Within Trial Director,
there are a variety of tools for creating document call-outs, either in advance or live, on the fly.  In this video, you can see the screen of one of our hot seat trial technicians as he makes document call-outs on the fly during a televised arbitration.  Here, certain key accounting figures are highlighted through the use of color, the use of a moving cursor, and the use of a zooming-in technique to make certain numbers more prominent.


 


2.  In a static exhibit,
when used as the old-fashioned printed foam core trial exhibit board or on a slide, the document call-out becomes quite powerful.  In today's cases, where most exhibits are presented on screen, a printed board of the key document in a case can be a great tool.

Further, sometimes the document call-out can provide something more.  In the below document,  the message we wanted to convey to the jury was that the failure to follow procedures on the ground (to STOP traffic) was what led to the accident, not air traffic control.  The octagonal red area functions both as a document call-out, to highlight the established policy on the ground when there is an incoming helicopter, and also as a strong visual reminder that it was necessary to stop traffic and that this was not done.

stop sign document callout legal graphic 

The call-out below emphasizes the crucial language of an insurance policy defining the important term “accident.”

policy language pull quote document call-out legal graphic



3.  In PowerPoint slides,
there are various techniques for calling out document text culled from various courtroom presentations.  In this series of slides captured from a variety of PowerPoint presentations, we illustrate a number of common document call-out techniques.

 


document callout demonstrative evidence

Tags: Trial Graphics, Litigation Graphics, Trial Presentation, Courtroom Presentations, Litigation Technology, Demonstrative Evidence, PowerPoint, Document Call-Outs, Trial Boards

Making Good Use of Trial Director & Demonstratives in an Arbitration

Posted by Ken Lopez on Thu, Jan 5, 2012 @ 07:26 AM


trial director technology presentationTrialDirector, a trial presentation software package produced by InData, is an indispensable aid to the presentation of electronic and other evidence at trial. There is a reason why this product has claimed the majority of the market share for trial presentation software for more than 10 years: It can actually make it interesting for a jury or other fact-finder to listen to a witness testify about corporate balance sheets, long-ago emails, and other documents that can be fatally boring and lose the attention of the fact-finder.
 

At A2L Consulting, we have been using TrialDirector to support our presentations and to help our clients win cases for more than a decade. The combination of this software and a well-trained “hot seat operator” makes presentations interesting and sprightly. We generally pair TrialDirector with PowerPoint, other specialty software, specially constructed scale models, and the occasional printed large-format foam core trial board to put together a full trial presentation. We use TrialDirector for more than half the cases we support.
 

For example, in the case of Railroad Development Corporation v. Republic of Guatemala, we worked with the Railroad Development Corporation and with the international law firm of Greenberg Traurig to make an arbitration case at the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes, the leading international arbitration institution devoted to investor-State dispute settlement. This was a two-week arbitration.


 

The video here shows how closely integrated the witness’s testimony is with the document that he is describing (an excellent use of TrialDirector), as well as the use of a carefully designed PowerPoint to show the status of the Guatemalan railroad at issue and the work that was done to improve that railroad. Using Trial Director, our hot seat operator brings up documents in real time and highlights them in color to point out the key aspects that we want to emphasize.
 

The video also briefly shows part of the opposing side’s low-tech presentation (begins at 5:15), which is based on “sticky notes” and a PowerPoint template that is not tailored to the case at hand. Our presentation is much more likely to capture the attention of the fact finders in what otherwise might be seen as a dry-as-dust case.
 

The basic point is that all cases benefit from the thoughtful presentation of evidence. The more haphazard the presentation, the less credible the presenter will be. Our TrialDirector operators are specifically trained in the use of that powerful software – but the key to success for a trial technician is not just the software savvy but also the ability to work on the fly, to suggest creative ways of presenting evidence, and to work long hours for weeks at a time.
 

Below are some other resources about TrialDirector and Trial Technicians on our site:


Trial technicians using TrialDirector are normally responsible for the following at A2L:
  • creating a trial exhibit and document database before trial starts;
  • making deposition clips and syncing them with a transcript;
  • helping the litigation team to prepare witnesses to build their comfort with an electronic presentation;
  • setting up a war room and electronic courtroom with trial presentation technology;
  • helping to finalize the case-in-chief and demonstrative evidence presentations;
  • running the trial presentation technology in the courtroom so any document is accessible instantly;
  • creating on-the-fly demonstrative evidence to be used with a witness on cross examination;
  • running the entire trial presentation using Trial Director;

Some additional trial technology, trial graphics and trial technician articles that you may find useful include:

 

best demonstrative evidence trial presentation provider

Tags: Trial Technicians, Trial Consultants, Trial Presentation, Litigation Technology, Hot Seat Operators, Trial Technology, Arbitration/Mediation, PowerPoint, Trial Director, Document Call-Outs

Litigation Graphics: Timelines Can Persuade Judges and Juries

Posted by Ken Lopez on Mon, Jun 20, 2011 @ 10:12 AM

Timelines can be extremely helpful in many types of trials. Whenever the order in which events occurred is a significant issue, or a jury or judge needs to understand how a story began and ended, a timeline is appropriate.

As Texas attorney and legal technology expert Jeffrey S. Lisson has written [pdf], “Timelines are the most effective way to give a judge or jury a sense of who did what, when, and to whom. Just as bar charts and graphs help the uninitiated make sense out of a sea of facts and figures, timelines show the relationship between events. Timelines generally show events laid out on a horizontal, constant chronological scale. Events – the writing of a memo, the reading of an x-ray, or the shooting of a gun – are listed in the order they occurred. While tables of dates and facts require effort to understand, timelines are instantly clear.”

trial timeline trial graphics litigation courtroom timelines



Contrary to many people’s belief, PowerPoint presentations are well suited to the presentation of timelines and other litigation graphics. Because it is easy to add hyperlinks to a PowerPoint, an experienced designer can create an interactive presentation that allows the presenter to click on a “hot spot,” such as a document icon, name or date, and move directly to that item.

For example, in the exhibit, “Prior Art Interactive Patent Timeline Trial Graphics,” that we devised for a patent case, the presenter can show the history of the prior art related to a subsequent patented invention in any order that is convenient.




Similarly, in the “Hatch Waxman ANDA Timeline,” the colored bars represent periods of conversation with the Food and Drug Administration that delayed the approval of an Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) for a generic drug. The timeline that we used shows visually that a citizen petition did not cause a delay in the approval of the generic drug. Rather, the delay resulted from the FDA taking its time in its review of the application. This timeline, which summarizes thousands of pages of documents, helped lead to a complete defense verdict for our client, a major pharmaceutical company.



The concept behind our exhibit, “EPA’s History of Vague Regulation and Unfair Enforcement” in a new source review case was to tell the history of EPA's lack of enforcement and inconsistent messages -- and the industry’s success in lowering pollution from coal-fired power plants in spite of the EPA’s inaction. It is possible to add other information to a timeline to make it tell more of a story and persuade, not just inform. Using timelines as a persuasion tool throughout a trial represents a higher level of advocacy than merely putting events in chronological order.  Click the image to zoom.

Timeline Plus Graph Persuades
Like any litigation graphics shown to a fact-finder, the timeline can and should be a persuasion tool.  We believe it should tell a story without having to read all or even most text entries.  Should individual timeline entries seem to be inconsistent with the overall trial theme or should juxtaposing them with a long term graph underscore that correlation does not equate with causation, we advise telling that story visually as above.

 

Click me

Tags: Energy Litigation, Trial Graphics, Litigation Graphics, Trial Presentation, Animation, Patent Litigation, Pharmaceutical, PowerPoint, Document Call-Outs, Timelines, Clean Air Act, Antitrust Litigation

Trial Exhibits: Using the Document Call-Out to Persuade

Posted by Ken Lopez on Sat, Feb 19, 2011 @ 09:15 PM

Whether a $5 million trial or litigation involving hundreds of billions of dollars, Animators at Law almost always uses document call-out trial exhibits as part of its trial presentation.  They are a time-tested and effective tool for highlight key portions of a document in evidence.  Sometimes these call-outs are done on-the-fly in Trial Director by our on-site trial technicians and sometimes these are created using PowerPoint.

Regardless of the tool used, care should be taken to consider the most persuasive design for the point a litigator is trying to make.  All too often, stock designs that simply highlight black text in electronic yellow highlighter or faux torn paper tear-outs are used to emphasize key text.  Sometimes these approaches are adequate.  Other times, you are missing out on a key opportunity to persuade.

Animators at Law was hired by The U.S. Department of Justice to produce a group of trial exhibits to defend against injury claims in a rescue helicopter landing.  One key case theme required us to emphasize that it was the duty of the hospital to stop traffic rather than anyone on the helicopter or at air traffic control.  To make this point, we arranged the key call-out language inside a stop sign shape.  When combined with emphasis by the litigator, I believe the message of "STOP" was unforgettable.

trial exhibit stop sign


Litigator Jury Communication Gaps Solved With Trial Graphics

Tags: Trial Graphics, Litigation Graphics, Trial Presentation, Juries, Color Theory, Trial Director, Document Call-Outs, Information Design

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Authors

KenLopez resized 152

Ken Lopez founded A2L Consulting in 1995. The firm has since worked with litigators from all major law firms on more than 10,000 cases with over $2 trillion cumulatively at stake.  The A2L team is comprised of psychologists, jury consultants, trial consultants, litigation consultants, attorneys and information designers who provide jury consulting, litigation graphics and trial technology.  Ken Lopez can be reached at lopez@A2LC.com.


tony-klapper-headshot-500x500.jpg 

Tony Klapper joined A2L Consulting after accumulating 20 years of litigation experience while a partner at both Reed Smith and Kirkland & Ellis. Today, he is the Managing Director of Litigation Consulting and General Counsel for A2L Consulting. Tony has significant litigation experience in products liability, toxic tort, employment, financial services, government contract, insurance, and other commercial disputes.  In those matters, he has almost always been the point person for demonstrative evidence and narrative development on his trial teams. Tony can be reached at klapper@a2lc.com.


dr laurie kuslansky jury consultant a2l consulting







Laurie R. Kuslansky, Ph.D., Managing Director, Trial & Jury Consulting, has conducted over 400 mock trials in more than 1,000 litigation engagements over the past 20 years. Dr. Kuslansky's goal is to provide the highest level of personalized client service possible whether one's need involves a mock trial, witness preparation, jury selection or a mock exercise not involving a jury. Dr. Kuslansky can be reached at kuslansky@A2LC.com.

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