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The Litigation Consulting Report

A Surprising New Reason to Repeat Yourself at Trial

Posted by Ken Lopez on Mon, Oct 12, 2015 @ 03:16 PM

reptetiion repeat yourself lawyer attorney courtroom trialby Ken Lopez
A2L Consulting

I want to share the results of an interesting study that I recently read. I believe that it has implications for how we present information in the courtroom. It appears in the October 2015 Journal of Experimental Psychology, and is entitled Knowledge Does Not Protect Against Illusory Truth.

As experts in the persuasion business, we have long known about the power of repetition. We use it as a specific rhetorical technique during opening statements. We incorporate repetition when creating demonstrative evidence. We even choose to repeat the same message in many different formats (trial boards, PowerPoint, scale models) to reach different types of learners. We do this because repetition helps people remember things, it signals that something is important, and it helps presenters be more persuasive.

Studies have long shown that the more we hear something, the more likely we are to believe it. This is why some people believe that Vitamin C helps stave off a cold or that you should drink eight glasses of water per day to maintain good health. Both of these statements lack any scientific basis. We've just heard them so often that many have come to believe them.

Think about the assertions we are already hearing over and over in this election season. Hillary Clinton hid something in her email. Donald Trump declared bankruptcy four times. Carly Fiorina was a bad CEO. Planned Parenthood sells aborted baby parts.

I don't know how much truth there is in any of these statements, but I do know that the more I hear them, the more I tend to believe them. That’s the power of repetition. Psychologists call this the illusory truth effect, and it's why we counsel our clients to use repetition throughout a case. When people don't know anything about a particular topic, the illusory truth effect tells us that the more they hear an assertion, the more they will believe it.In general, the easier the information is to process, the more likely it is to be believed. That's why we counsel litigators to articulate very clearly why they should win their case and to avoid a hyper-nuanced approach. As an in-house counsel friend once said to me, in instances like this the law is background noise. A clear story that is easy to process and that emotionally resonates with a jury will normally prevail. This ease of understanding is called “fluency.”

The current study in the Journal of Experimental Psychology extends the power of repetition to an entirely new level. Its authors were able to prove that not only does repetition cause people to believe things more when they are unsure of the facts, but also that repetition can make people believe things to be true that they already know are probably not true. In the words of the authors, “The present research demonstrates that fluency can influence people’s judgments, even in contexts that allow them to draw upon their stored knowledge. The results of two experiments suggest that people sometimes fail to bring their knowledge to bear and instead rely on fluency as a proximal cue.”

I think that's an amazing finding, and I think it has important implications for the courtroom. It would seem that we can’t repeat our message too much and that we can’t make a case too easy to understand.

Other articles about persuasion techniques, jury psychology and various tricks of the persuasion trade by A2L Consulting:

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Tags: Demonstrative Evidence, Psychology, PowerPoint, Visual Persuasion, Scale Models, Trial Boards, Persuasion

16 Litigation Graphics Lessons for Mid-Sized Law Firms

Posted by Ken Lopez on Tue, Jan 7, 2014 @ 10:49 AM


litigation graphics mid size law firmby Ken Lopez
A2L Consulting

Part 1 of a four-part series on the rise of the midsize law firm in litigation. Parts 1,2,3,4.

I have written about the "new normal" of the legal economy and have even published an ebook focused on pricing strategies and alternative fee arrangements, all part of a trend toward value that major corporations are receiving from their law firms. One other trend that I’ve noticed is that a lot more midsized law firms are now handed big cases to try. It's interesting to watch, since seeing how a midsized firm handles the case feels a lot like 1995 again.

In the 1990s, large law firms were just waking up to the idea of using litigation graphics at trial. It's hard to believe that back then, I spent most of my time convincing this pre-Internet generation that juries wanted to see visuals.

By 1998 or so, A2L Consulting (then Animators at Law) had its first billion-dollar win in part because of the effective use of printed trial boards. That was the same year that we started referring to our work as litigation consulting. Now, almost every case handled by a large firm uses litigation consulting in some form.

Over the past three decades, law firms have figured out that litigation best practices include the extensive use of visual aids, the regular use of a trial technician to manage electronic evidence at trial, and the value of conducting one or more mock exercises. Each of these practice areas has developed in response to specific problems that exist in bench and jury trials alike, and there is an art and science (and about a $250 million industry) that exists around litigation consulting.

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So, as more large litigation is pushed into midsize firms as a cost containment measure, I notice something interesting. Most midsized firms just don't know how to use litigation consultants, and what might look like cost savings is going to yield troublesome results later. After all, we figured all of these problems out once in the 1990s, and an industry exists to provide solutions.

So in the spirit of offering the midsized firm, or frankly any firm that is not an AmLaw 50 firm, a solid primer on what's been learned these past 20 years, I offer the following 16 lessons:

1. Using Litigation Graphics Yields Better Results: It's beyond "broad scientific consensus," it's just a fact, Litigation graphics provide better results. This recent 2013 study on the effect of visual evidence on juries [PDF] does a good job of summarizing the science of litigation graphics.

2. Litigators are Generally Not Well-Suited to Do Their Own Graphics: We wrote about this some time ago in a commonsense article called Trial Graphics Dilemma: Why Can't I Make My Own Slides? (Says Lawyer)

3. In-House Graphics Departments Mostly Don't Work: In general, firms do not go to trial enough to give in-house departments real trial experience. This article goes into some detail about in-house graphics litigation departments not working well.

4. Bullet Point Slides Will Hurt Your Case: We write about this often, because it is a big problem that is easily avoided. This is our seminal article on the topic of bullet points, but there are many others.

5. At least 2/3 of your jury will learn visually: A study we conducted in 2003 revealed that about two-thirds of the general public learns visually. It is available as a free download here.

6. Lawyers and Jurors Communicate Differently: The same study revealed something revolutionary too. Lawyers and juries tend to communicate differently. Juries want to see while lawyers prefer to speak.

7. Litigation Graphics Consultants Improve Your Perspective: I've heard it from hundreds of litigators at big firms that one of the things they most appreciate is the fresh pair of eyes that a litigation graphics consultant brings.

8. Showing Your Documents is Not Using Litigation Graphics: We often hear from smaller firms that they have their graphics needs covered because they have someone running their Trial Director database at trial. Actually there is very little overlap between the work talented litigation graphics consultants do and what a trial technician does at trial. In legal terms, generally, litigation graphics people handle demonstrative evidence while trial technicians handle real evidence. You need both to be successful.

9. Skilled Litigation Artists Can Make PowerPoint Do Things You Would Think are Impossible: PowerPoint is a surprisingly powerful tool. In the hands of a skilled consultant, real demonstrative evidence magic is possible.

10. No, your neighbor's son is not well-suited to make your graphics: We spend years taking a great artist and making them a great litigation graphic artist. The two do not automatically go together. In litigation, the goal is persuasion and simplicity.

11. Mixing your presentation forms is critical: I'm not sure this has been extensively studied yet, but I know it's true from my experience. The more you can mix up your presentation mediums at trial, the more you can keep at jury's interest. So, use scale models and use a trial board in addition to PowerPoint to surprise your jury.

12. You Can Actually Learn Big Law Firm Techniques from Your Litigation Graphics Firm: In most cases, a litigation graphics firm will have experienced more trials than nearly any large law firm. That’s just the way it is. Ask them what works.

13. Practice is key: There really is not enough practicing going on in the practice of law. Most people are not normally using visual aids while they are communicating. So, you need to practice this work to make it look natural and not distracting. See 3 Ways to Force Yourself to Practice Your Trial Presentation.

14. Budget for Litigation Graphics at the Beginning: If I were in an in-house position, I would hope to see my outside firm budget $50,000 for litigation graphics work. It might take more or less, but not including this line item in a litigation budget seems unsophisticated at best. Here are some articles on what to expect cost-wise for litigation graphics or animation and even how best to structure alternative fee arrangements with your litigation graphics consultants.

15. Trial is Not the Only Place to Use Graphics: Graphics are showing up in briefs pretty regularly. They are of course used in hearings. Here are 14 Places Your Colleagues Are Using Persuasive Graphics (That Maybe You're Not).

16. There are Very Few Top Notch Litigation Graphics Firms: We are a very small industry. There really are just a small handful of firms that you can trust and rely upon. Get to know them and don't be afraid to work outside of your local area as this is easy remote work. In all likelihood, the best firm for you is not down the street.

Parts 1,2,3,4. 

Other articles related to litigation graphics on A2L Consulting's site:

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Tags: Trial Graphics, Litigation Graphics, Trial Presentation, Animation, Scale Models, Alternative Fee Arrangements

Download the Best of the National Law Journal 2013 Here - A2L Voted #1 in Demonstrative Evidence!

Posted by Ken Lopez on Mon, Mar 25, 2013 @ 01:41 PM

a2l consulting voted best demonstrative evidence consultants best of nlj 2013Ken Lopez
Founder & CEO
A2L Consulting

For someone who is on trial, there is often no substitute for a jury of one’s peers in rendering a fair verdict. For a company such as A2L Consulting, which works with the top litigators in the nation every day and provides trial consulting services, there is no substitute for the judgment of the people we work with on a regular basis. And those judgments, embodied in a National Law Journal nationwide survey, placed us first in the category of demonstrative evidence providers.

More than 450 firms were nominated in the various categories, more than 5,000 non-vendor votes were tallied and A2L Consulting outpolled some very well-known trial exhibit and demonstrative evidence firms to reach the #1 spot.

We are very proud to have earned the confidence of the legal industry, with whom we go to trial in state and federal courts across the country. The trial exhibit and trial consulting field has changed dramatically from 1995, when we were founded. For example, in our less than two decades in business, PowerPoint became the standard for presentation software, jury consulting services are increasingly moving online and printed trial boards went out of favor and are now undergoing a renaissance. At A2L, our job is to stay ahead of the rapid pace of technology in many different areas.

We hope to work with you in the future. Our principals are trial lawyers ourselves, and we understand the pressures and dilemmas that trial presentations involve. We can and will be at your side in creating the best possible presentations and the most convincing evidence.

You can download the full 2013 National Law Journal guide to the top legal support service companies by clicking here or on the image below:

a2l consulted voted best demonstrative evidence consultants national law journal nlj 2013



Tags: Trial Graphics, Litigation Graphics, Trial Presentation, Courtroom Presentations, Demonstrative Evidence, Animation, Articles, PowerPoint, Press, Scale Models

8 Strategies for Hurricane Sandy Litigation

Posted by Ken Lopez on Tue, Jan 22, 2013 @ 08:00 AM

hurricane sandy litigation superstorm graphics animation consultantsby Ken Lopez
Founder & CEO
A2L Consulting 

Hurricane Sandy, sometimes called Superstorm Sandy since it did not strike land as a hurricane, ranks as the second costliest storm to hit the United States. Damage estimates range from $50 billion to nearly $100 billion, second only to Hurricane Katrina at about $150 billion (adjusted for inflation).

How bad was it?  It destroyed or damaged 400,000 homes and caused the loss of power, often for a week or more, in 8.5 million homes in 16 states. It destroyed 250,000 cars. At least 150 people lost their lives. It struck an area with about 17 percent of the U.S. population living on about two percent of the nation’s land area.

Click here to Download a Free Litigation E-Book

The storm has already spurred a good deal of litigation. Many of the cases are breach of contract cases related to insurance coverage, and many of these cases will turn on whether damages were caused by wind (covered by insurance) or flood waters (not normally covered by insurance).  One challenge here for litigators will be that Sandy was, unlike Hurricane Katrina, downgraded from a hurricane.  Other suits will no doubt be filed for power outage lawsuits, price gouging, negligence cases (remember the construction crane collapse in Manhattan), worker exposure suits, and likely some toxic tort suits related to spilled chemicals.

superstorm sandy litigation hurricane graphics animation consultantsOur firm, then known as Animators at Law, was involved, either briefly or for years, in four significant Hurricane Katrina cases.  Our work was divided into two categories -- those in which our client was seeking to recover millions or billions from insurance companies for property damage and those in which the client was being held responsible for property damage related to the levees in New Orleans. I learned some valuable lessons from my work on these cases, much of which will be applicable for Sandy litigation. 

1. Prepare early. For one case, we began our preparations years before a potential trial. Demonstratives were created, courtroom animations were created and physical models were built.  These things take time to get right, especially when multiple law firms and multiple expert firms are involved.

2. Seeing is believing. In one case, we created an animated presentation that was so realistic that it would be hard to imagine that the events had happened another way.

3. Accuracy counts. In a hurricane case there will be questions about wind vs. flooding damage. Don’t leave any room for doubt.

4. Storyboarding is a cost saving technique.  Measure twice, cut once, goes the old carpentry adage. This is also true in the production of animation for the courtroom. By using storyboards to sketch out a litigation animation well before creating the animation, enormous amounts of money will be saved.

5. The book is usually better than the movie.  If you are on the plaintiff's side, you might be tempted to produce a sophisticated recreation of some event arising from the hurricane. These can involve wind experts, water experts, and more. As I told one plaintiff's attorney in a plane crash case who asked us to recreate in animated form the passenger experience and synchronize that with audio from the cabin, you don't need to; the jury will hear the audio and what they imagine will be much worse than anything we can create for them.

6.  Causation is key. All too often, causation is critical in hurricane cases.  Here there will be questions of whether the damage was caused by Sandy or by the nor’easter that quickly followed Sandy.

7.  Test juror attitudes.  Mock trials will be essential as attitudes will vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.

8. Don’t rely on jurors’ recollections.  Even for a major event like Sandy, memories fade after months and years. Remind jurors of the details of the storm and how bad it was.

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Tags: Trial Graphics, Trial Consultants, Litigation Graphics, Trial Presentation, Mock Trial, Animation, Scale Models, Insurance Coverage, Hurricane

3D Printing to Change Courtroom Demonstrative Evidence

Posted by Ken Lopez on Tue, Jan 17, 2012 @ 10:43 AM


3d printing courtroom demonstrative models
At first it sounds like something out of science fiction, but 3D printing has arrived – and it can be very helpful to the litigator and litigation consultant.

In 3D printing, which was invented in 2003, the user either electronically sculpts or scans nearly any object into the printer, using a computer-assisted design (CAD) program to tinker with the color and shape of the object when necessary. It can be a hand tool, an architectural model, an auto part – nearly anything within a reasonable size limitation. The printer does the rest.

When you press “print,” the printer builds up a three-dimensional replica of the object gradually, by adding material one layer at a time in plastic or metal. In a short time, you have a new solid object in your hand. It is hard to believe, but this process creates usable, functional objects. A tool such as an adjustable wrench can be “built” on this type of printer, using an existing wrench or a 3D model as a template. 

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While futurists are already speculating on whether this technology, once its price is reduced, will revolutionize manufacturing or even become the basis for a new type of industrial revolution, we are already planning on using it for trial exhibits in the courtroom.

At A2L Consulting, we are able to adapt this technology to offer a new option for demonstrative evidence. We can create miniature scale models of buildings in a construction case or larger models of tiny parts that can be at issue in a patent case. Previously, these types of replicas had to be sculpted by hand by artisans – a much more lengthy and expensive process.

In a case involving medical malpractice, a 3D printer can create a model of the body part in question, showing the damage or injury. A good example would be a 3D model of a spinal cord injury, which can be built up from a 3D medical image.

The cost of these printers is already beginning to come down, so we expect that their use will only expand in the coming decades. We are one of the first trial exhibit providers to offer this technology.

As is always true in the trial technology industry, anything that helps a juror understand or visualize the issues at trial is extremely helpful. Many jurors are visual learners and will naturally gravitate towards a 3D object during their deliberations, since it “tells a story” for them.

The short video below will give you a good idea of how this technology can be used. A2L Consulting has the ability to perform 3D printing operations for litigation in most major cities.




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Tags: Trial Graphics, Litigation Graphics, Trial Presentation, Courtroom Presentations, Demonstrative Evidence, Science, Scale Models, 3D Printing

5 Ways Litigation Consultants Add Pizzazz to a Tedious Case

Posted by Ken Lopez on Thu, Oct 20, 2011 @ 05:30 PM

Very often, trial lawyers face what feels like an impossible dilemma. The case that they want to present is extremely complex, intensely tedious or worse yet, both.

However their audience, the very people who need to understand the facts of the case and render a verdict in the client’s favor, are jurors – everyday people with full-time jobs and often without any relevant technical background.  Enter the litigation consultants.

Whether a case involves a patent dispute over electronic circuits, or an environmental issue involving leaking storage tanks, or an antitrust prosecution where complicated business strategies are being tested, it’s pretty certain that the jurors who are the ultimate decision-makers will have little or no previous knowledge of the topic. Let's hope they can muster an interest - most jurors can - for a reasonable period of time. With this pretext in mind, the good news is that there are proven strategies employed by litigation consultants to solve these very problems, and these same strategies can be used by trial counsel in any case.

So, how does one prevent jurors from being bored and tuning out the trial presentation? After all, a great case on the law and the facts is useless if the jurors aren’t listening.

The answer is: Use any one (or a combination) of these 5 proven trial presentation techniques used by litigation consultants to provide entertainment value while you, as trial counsel, educate and persuade.

  1. Create a Compelling Visual Experience:  When people watch the news, they now typically receive it in 30-second sound bites, YouTube presentations, and color photographs, diagrams, and graphics.  Like it or not, the days of families gathering to watch Walter Cronkite each weekday evening are gone.

    Decades ago, many daily newspapers, prodded by the success of USA Today, started putting data about everything from baseball averages to political poll standings to vaccination rates into color-coded charts and graphs. The Internet, where most people receive the majority of their news today, only magnifies that trend.

    Good litigation consultants use the same visual communication methods to help trial counsel create a compelling experience for the jury -- one that communicates with them on a variety of different levels. So, instead of using PowerPoint exhibits only, also use printed trial boards in combination to mix the mediums and enhance the viewer’s experience. Instead of showing documentary evidence only, consider including some appropriate animation. Rather than showing your presentation entirely on a screen, show some photos on an iPad as well.

    Create a complete experience using information design tactics that touches all senses and all three learning styles. It’s all about the total trial presentation – not just the answers that the witnesses give on the stand and the summations to the jury.

  2. Create a Memorable Experience:  Lawyers need to provide the jurors with a memorable experience if they expect the jurors to pay attention. Trial lawyers can mimic the memory techniques used by experienced litigation consultants. Even with a “boring” or “technical” subject, if you use the right tools, jurors will remember.

    Consider the use of scale models or physical models in the courtroom to make a case more memorable for a juror, especially those with a kinesthetic learning style. Remember also that color coding and the use of alliteration can further imprint the memory of the listeners and keep their attention, so do not discount these simple devices to help jurors track information and key facts.

    Also consider using an image that sticks with a jury. In the example below, in order to convey the notion that an expert gives different business valuations to different audiences, we use a memorable image of the two-sided man.  Obviously the goal here is to undermine credibility of the opposition’s expert.

    litigation consultants 

  3. Use Interesting Analogies:  A good analogy can be delivered orally or by video, diagrams, animations, three-dimensional models, or anything that will keep jurors’ interest.  A lawyer can use this strategy regardless of how large or small the client’s pocketbook is.

    For example, if the case is about software and whether the modifications constituted an invention, use a familiar analogy to tell that story instead of continuing to show line after line of code. Putting an abstract concept into everyday terms can help eliminate confusion and can sometimes create the added value of a more emotional connection to the facts.

    litigation consulting 

  4. Animation in Some Form Works: A top-rated litigation consulting and animation company knows how to build exhibits (whether the budget is severely limited or not) that convey information graphically and in a manner that piques the viewer’s interest.  Keep in mind that animation can be as simple as movement of information on a screen, ghosting (dulling) images or text to spotlight specific content at the pace desired by the presenter, or highlighting a key statement from a document.  Animation takes many forms and can allow the litigator to take control of even the most mundane information and present it in a far more interesting way.

    Litigation consulting companies, from their years of practical experience in managing trial exhibits, know what will work and what will not. A well-prepared animation will always capture a jury's attention. Some forms of animation can be produced in-house, and others require the help of litigation consultants. Learn about 4 courtroom animation styles in this article.
  5. Tell Great Stories:  The job of any trial lawyer is to advocate for his or her client’s interests as zealously as possible within ethical limits. Today, that responsibility includes making sure that the jurors remain awake, interested, and entertained. Litigation consultants use information design techniques in litigation to help tell great stories.

    For example, if the case turns on the credibility of a key witness. Tell a memorable and emotional story about them. In a corporate fraud and bankruptcy case, we successfully undermined the credibility of the plaintiff by pointing out his mixed motives in the case and his pattern of "wearing many hats" to suit that which benefited him most financially.

    litigation consultants 

Consider any or all of these top 5 winning litigation consulting techniques whenever you prepare to present and you can be certain that your presentations will be the better for it.

    Other related A2L Consulting Resources by our Litigation Consultants:

    Tags: Trial Graphics, Litigation Graphics, Trial Presentation, Courtroom Presentations, Trial Consulting, Juries, Animation, Articles, Scale Models, Trial Boards, Information Design

    Using Scale Models as Demonstrative Evidence - a Winning Trial Tactic

    Posted by Ken Lopez on Tue, Sep 27, 2011 @ 09:55 AM


    When most people think of courtroom presentations, they think of computer-aided graphics like PowerPoint presentations or movies – or of written guides such as charts, graphs, and timelines. They don’t usually think of physical, scale-model creations.

    In the appropriate cases, however, physical models or scale models can be extremely convincing to jurors, especially those jurors who are “kinesthetic learners” – those who learn best from three-dimensional objects. Every jury is likely to include one or even two of these people, and it is important to present information in ways that are suitable to their learning style.

    patent litigation ebook

    We have built effective models in a variety of case types including patent infringement cases, Hurricane Katrina cases, and aviation cases.

    As Dallas attorney James L. Mitchell wrote in 2003 [pdf] in a paper presented at a litigation and trial tactics seminar:   Scale models which are fabricated specifically for a case . . . can serve an explanatory, illustrative function which is difficult to duplicate with any other medium. It is important to remember that even when the model is present in the courtroom, it is still useful to present it with photographs (and/or slides) or with the use of the courtroom video visualizer. After the jurors look at the model and grasp the overall spatial relationships involved, they may get a clearer view of the specific areas at issue through a photograph rather than the model.  

    scale model demonstrative evidence​In a major patent case, we helped attorneys for Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., show how electricity flows through computer memory by building a 15-gallon, clear plastic water tank. [View full article at right here pdf] At issue were Samsung patents for reading the electrical charges in computer circuitry. Samsung’s expert contended on the stand that the way the Samsung circuit was built, electricity would discharge completely under the proper circumstances. The opposing expert from In Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd. disagreed. In a courtroom demonstration, the water in the tank did in fact completely run out, into a tub on the floor.   ​In a month-long trial, the jury ended up rejecting a challenge to the patents that had been posed by Matsushita.

    ​In an aviation case, we built models of airplane instruments that were 4 feet by 4 feet in length in order to show how what happened when the knobs on the instruments were turned: The dials moved as well via a gear system that we designed and built.
    flight instruments scale model demonstrative evidence
    In a patent case involving blood plasmids, we built a set of wooden rings that were intended to show the composition and relative sizes of various competing products on the market.

    blood plasmid scale model

    Each of these examples nicely illustrates what is possible when good trial lawyers work with highly creative people to thoughtfully prepare for trial.  As we say -- it is a winning model!

    scale models demonstrative evidence


    Tags: Trial Consultants, Trial Presentation, Courtroom Presentations, Trial Consulting, Patent Litigation, Science, Scale Models, Aviation Litigation, Information Design

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    Ken Lopez founded A2L Consulting in 1995. The firm has since worked with litigators from all major law firms on more than 10,000 cases with over $2 trillion cumulatively at stake.  The A2L team is comprised of psychologists, jury consultants, trial consultants, litigation consultants, attorneys and information designers who provide jury consulting, litigation graphics and trial technology.  Ken Lopez can be reached at lopez@A2LC.com.


    Tony Klapper joined A2L Consulting after accumulating 20 years of litigation experience while a partner at both Reed Smith and Kirkland & Ellis. Today, he is the Managing Director of Litigation Consulting and General Counsel for A2L Consulting. Tony has significant litigation experience in products liability, toxic tort, employment, financial services, government contract, insurance, and other commercial disputes.  In those matters, he has almost always been the point person for demonstrative evidence and narrative development on his trial teams. Tony can be reached at klapper@a2lc.com.

    dr laurie kuslansky jury consultant a2l consulting

    Laurie R. Kuslansky, Ph.D., Managing Director, Trial & Jury Consulting, has conducted over 400 mock trials in more than 1,000 litigation engagements over the past 20 years. Dr. Kuslansky's goal is to provide the highest level of personalized client service possible whether one's need involves a mock trial, witness preparation, jury selection or a mock exercise not involving a jury. Dr. Kuslansky can be reached at kuslansky@A2LC.com.

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