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The Litigation Consulting Report

5 Ways the Economic Crisis Has Changed Jurors

Posted by Laurie Kuslansky on Mon, Aug 19, 2013 @ 01:30 PM

jurors new normal economic crisisby Laurie R. Kuslansky
Expert Jury Consultant

We have participated in a number of Great Recession cases. They tend to be related to banking, lending, LIBOR, fraudulent conveyance, securities, housing, a partnership gone bad, failed corporate spin-offs, failed transactions, or some type of fraud. We're about to start another one that also has its roots in the economic crisis and the government's response to it.

In many of these cases, we have had the challenge of reminding jurors that economic conditions looked awfully good in the years leading up to the staggering downturn. It was only at the very end of 2008 that real fear set in for the masses. So, often a jury is now asked to put themselves into a pre-recession mindset. We have used a variety of visual and rhetorical techniques to do so. From litigation graphics that incorporate a rear-view mirror or Monday morning quarterbacking metaphors, to a whole host of really scary charts showing just how bad things got and just how fast the economy crumbled, but that at some earlier point in time, it was unforeseeable.

“I knew it all along…”

The challenge is that looking back in the absence of what one already knows is daunting, and what psychology terms as “hindsight bias,” [1] “The term hindsight bias refers to the tendency people have to view events as more predictable than they really are. After an event, people often believe that they knew the outcome of the event before it actually happened.”[2] 

So, on this backdrop, how does it go when we ask jurors to get into a pre-recessionary mindset and judge the decisions our client made then in that light? Well, as you’d imagine, not well. It turns out that, for the most part, jurors cannot shift their thinking to really get into that mindset and some just can't even remember good times anymore or aren’t willing to do so. They can’t un-know or un-feel what they have experienced since. This is similar to the scenario in pollution cases in which, unless a juror is old enough to remember changing their car oil and dumping it, it seems unfathomable.

So, what is one to do if your case depends on a judge or jury reaching a conclusion that decisions were reasonable -- then -- not now?  We're finding that the answer is embracing the reality, changing your approach, and managing for the new reality. In martial arts terms, you might think of it as redirecting your opponent's energy instead of resisting it.

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Here are 5 ways jurors have changed because of the economic crisis and what to do about it.

1) Rethink Jury Selection: Most of us have stereotypes about who is the typical plaintiff or defense juror. These must be revisited freshly and on a one-to-one basis during jury selection. Some formerly defense-minded jurors have turned into virulent plaintiff-oriented ones.  If their once-secure portfolio or job were hindered, they tend to be less defense-oriented;

2) Bankers Will Pay: If your opponent is a bank, use it against them relentlessly. If you or your client is a bank, expect a jury to punish that fact. To inoculate against a banker attack, you should, to paraphrase Gordon Gecko, say, “Of course my clients are greedy, they're bankers! So why do you think they would do something that would yield bad results?  They wouldn't, because they are (greedy) bankers (or CEO's or business people or a Board of Directors).”

3) Perceptions Have Changed - But Not How You Might Think: Since the recession, Pew Research Center polls consistently find that the general public actually says their first priority in this economy is time -- not money -- as one might expect. Therefore, you must not waste the jury's time! Make your case very efficient by refining it with your mock jurors and litigation consultants and by summarizing the key information into user-friendly graphics.  Don’t show pages of information that can be better condensed into one graphic.  Know your point and get to the point.

4) Embrace New Emotions: Because of the Great Recession, emotions may be running high in voir dire depending on the length of your case, the subject matter of your case or by factors that have nothing to do with either. Rather than run from these emotions, encourage jurors to let it all out and express what is on their mind. Remember, revealing your enemies is the first goal in jury selection.  Of course, those who do express themselves strongly stand a fair chance of being excused for cause and you might just be able to tamp down some of the emotions in the jury room IF this is helpful to your case. Jury selection is one of the rare instances in which it helps you and your client to welcome hostility.

5) Trial Presentation Matters More Now Than Ever: Jurors expect faster trials than we used to see twenty years ago. You have to be quicker and very often your trial presentation is the best way to achieve that. Do not beat around the bush. Tell jurors exactly what they need to know. Rather than putting up litigation graphics that encourage a conclusion to be made, show the chart AND show them the conclusion they should draw from it. 

It's not just a new normal in the legal community, it is a new normal for most Americans. Things are getting much better and most people's optimism is returning, cautiously. For many jurors however, you can expect to see a lag, corporate distrust, and a way to finish the job of serving so they can get back home and to their real job, if they have one.

[1] Myers, David G. (2005). Social psychology (8 ed.). McGraw-Hill Education. pp. 18–19.

[2] Cherry, Kendra http://psychology.about.com/od/hindex/g/hindsight-bias.htm

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Tags: Trial Consultants, Jury Consulting, Litigation Consulting, Trial Consulting, Juries, Jury Consultants, Psychology, Securities Litigation, Banking Litigation

20 Fascinating Articles About Social Media and Litigation

Posted by Ken Lopez on Mon, Apr 8, 2013 @ 01:30 PM

social media articles litigators litigation supportby Ken Lopez
Founder & CEO
A2L Consulting

As social media have become an integral part of life in the 21st century, they have inevitably and dramatically affected law, litigation, and trial strategy. Whether it’s a question of jurors who tweet from the jury box, service of a subpoena through Facebook, ownership of a social media account after an employee resigns, the dollar value of a Twitter “follower,” or any number of other issues, no lawyer or trial consultant can remain unaware of the issues. Here is a collection of 20 interesting social media discussions from various online legal locations, with brief summaries.

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  1. Social Media Litigation Risks & Opportunities: It’s important to seek discovery of social media content in litigation, to name one interesting opportunity.
  2. How to Get Social Media Evidence Admitted: Social media information is discoverable, but what’s the best way to ask for it?
  3. Using Social Media Evidence as a Defense Litigation Tool [pdf]:  How insurers and others can use social media as a litigation tool.
  4. Social Media Evidence and Privacy Preferences: Not surprisingly, the rules governing e-discovery apply to social media and trump both a social media website's privacy guidelines and an individual user's privacy preferences.
  5. How to Avoid a Social Media Lawsuit:  How to set up an appropriate social media policy for your employees to fend off a potentially ruinous lawsuit.
  6. Who owns a Twitter account when an employee resigns?  It’s crucial to use discretion and good business judgment in launching a social media campaign, just as you would for any other aspect of your business.
  7. What can an employer do about employee communications: Interpreting the NLRB’s recent decision about when concerted employee conduct on social media is protected activity.
  8. Social Media and E-Discovery [pdf]: An overview of the risks and rewards of seeking social media information in e-discovery.
  9. Service of Process via Social Media [pdf]: The use of Facebook for service of process satisfies due process requirements, one judge recently held.
  10. The ABA's View of Judges Using Social Media [pdf]: The ABA’s view is that a judge may participate in social media but that in doing so, he or she must comply with the Code of Judicial Conduct and avoid any conduct that would undermine the judge’s independence, integrity, or impartiality, or create an appearance of impropriety.
  11. Texas State Bar Report on Social Media and the Law [pdf]: A full issue of the journal of the Texas State Bar’s litigation section on the interplay between litigation and social media.
  12. Authenticating Social Media Evidence [pdf]: Evidentiary standards for admission of evidence that were developed for other forms of electronic data may not be sufficient.
  13. New York State Bar's Social Media & Litigation [pdf]: An excellent broad overview of the issues that can arise.
  14. How Social Media Can Hurt You in Litigation: What small and midsize businesses need to know about the discovery of social media information.
  15. Social Media and the Federal Securities Laws: Here are some of the pitfalls that public companies can encounter when they try to disseminate company information through social media.
  16. Waving Attorney-Client Privilege via Social Media: Interesting decision that a client waived attorney-client privilege when she discussed, in chat rooms, her discussions with her attorney.
  17. Social Media and Antitrust Litigation: Companies can violate the antitrust laws through the use of social media, and antitrust compliance programs should include discussion of these risks.
  18. Getting the most out of Social Media for Litigation: How to use the resources of social media to test your litigation themes before you get to a real jury.
  19. The Social Media Trojan Horse: What you say in social media can come back to haunt you in litigation.

  20. The SEC and Full Disclosure in Social Media: The SEC just announced that public companies are allowed to use social media to make key corporate announcements  as long as they alert investors about which sites they intend to use.
storytelling for lawyers litigators and litigation support courtroom narrative

Tags: Social Media, Judges, Securities Litigation, Labor and Employment, Ethics

Explaining a Complicated Process Using Trial Graphics

Posted by Ken Lopez on Tue, Apr 24, 2012 @ 12:12 PM

process flow charts trial graphicsIn our work as trial graphics specialists, many cases require us to prepare a demonstrative exhibit that simplifies a complex process. This could be a scientific or technical matter such as how environmental remediation is conducted, how surgical mesh is used, or how data backups are migrated, or it could be a business or governmental matter such as how a form of bond obligation is created and sold or how a government contract is bid and awarded.

The key to making a successful process chart or flow chart is to create a simple trial graphic that anyone can quickly understand. It does not have to spell out every last detail of the science, technology, business concept, or governmental action involved; it merely has to discuss it accurately and in a way that will help the judge or jury understand what is at issue in the case.

Here are some examples of process chart trial graphics that we have used and that we thought were effective.

In this video below, we use PowerPoint intellectual property graphics to explain how video playback and freeze frames are handled through the use of tagging technology. This was a very valuable trial graphic in a patent case.


In the presentation below, we explain, in schematic form, the hydraulic fracturing (fracking) process that is used to extract natural gas from rock. The presentation shows how far below the earth’s surface fracking occurs and the industry’s routine use of cement and steel casings to protect groundwater from the tools and substances used in the fracking process.

In the presentation below, we show in graphic form the process in which collateralized debt obligations are created by investment banks. Through the use of Prezi presentation software, we were able to make this highly technical and complex matter comprehensible to a fact finder by introducing the concept of an “investment” and then showing how CDO’s are simply a type of investment.

In the trial graphics, we explain the drug development process in the United States and the process for regulatory approval of new drugs by the Food and Drug Administration. This PowerPoint demonstration helped a jury understand the length of time that the process can take, why it can take so long to bring a drug to market, and all the steps involved. 

Below, we introduce a jury to the process of creating a FLIP (Foreign Leveraged Investment Program). By numbering the steps in the process and creating arrows from the taxpayer to other entities, we were able to show how this tax shelter unfolds.

describe the image

What Is FLIP


The PowerPoint trial graphics below, created for a patent trial, shows how a coal conversion process occurs.


process charts trial graphics

Tags: Energy Litigation, Trial Graphics, Demonstrative Evidence, Animation, Patent Litigation, Pharmaceutical, Environmental Litigation, PowerPoint, Securities Litigation, Process Charts

Banking Litigation Courtroom Presentations

Posted by Ken Lopez on Fri, Oct 28, 2011 @ 01:44 PM

We have have created courtroom presentations in banking cases almost since our very beginning nearly 17 years ago. From savings and loan litigation in the 1990s to IPO litigation stemming from the 2001 dotcom meltdown to ongoing banking fraud and bankruptcy litigation connected with the 2008 financial crisis, we have helped jurors understand complicated financial concepts that are at the heart of most banking litigation.

We have discussed earlier this year how a good trial consultant can make complex financial concepts comprehensible to jurors by using courtroom presentations that relate to a juror’s basic understanding of life and personal experience. See our discussions of collateralized debt obligations and of securities litigation.

The same can apply to courtroom presentations for seemingly complex banking litigation. Since nearly all jurors have bank accounts and have used ATM’s, they have a basic sense of what banks do. So it often is not a long stretch for them to have an intuitive notion that banks are involved in complex ATM networks, that they sell profitable investment products to clients, or that they manage and move large sums of money. What is more difficult is explaining the details of how these things work.

In a straightforward courtroom presentation graphic below, we showed that the total revenue of a bank far exceeded the gross national product of Guatemala. We used a supermarket scale and money bags – a basic concept that any juror can follow – to make an indelible impression on the jurors.

In another very straightforward courtroom presentation graphic, we showed people sitting around a conference table as a partner in a major accounting firm told them about a highly questionable tax shelter that the firm was marketing. The “shady characters” are shown in shadow to emphasize the dubious nature of what they are doing.

banking fraud skelly

In another courtroom presentation illustration for the same case, we portrayed this complicated financial transaction with an illustrated flow chart with seven steps, beginning with “Taxpayer realized Capital Gain” and ending with “Taxpayer Reports Loss to IRS.” Even if a juror does not fully understand the transaction on the same level as those who devised it, he or she certainly understands that somehow a “Capital Gain” was transformed into a “Loss” for the IRS. The juror has paid taxes and has never been able to convert a gain into a loss, we can be assured.

what is a flip irs

We also graphically portrayed how a worldwide ATM network functions. At the bottom of the courtroom presentation chart are the individual bank customers, who are faced with the possibility of paying a “foreign fee” and a “surcharge.”

foreign atm fee graphic courtroom presentation

Finally, for litigation involving the BCCI bank scandal of the 1980s, we created a similar chart that showed the flow of money from various entities in that case to BCCI.  This case represented our first billion dollar win.  We've had hundreds since.

BCCI banking fraud courtroom presentations

Tags: Trial Graphics, Litigation Graphics, Trial Presentation, Courtroom Presentations, Trial Consulting, Securities Litigation, Banking Litigation, White Collar

4 Tips for Using Trial Graphics in Motions and Briefs

Posted by Theresa Villanueva on Tue, Oct 11, 2011 @ 08:24 AM

Most people, when they think of trial graphics, focus on exhibits to be used at trial. But graphics can also be used in motions and briefs presented to judges, even if jurors will never see them. After all, if you are using graphics to make your argument or tell your story at trial, why not use them at an earlier stage to make your argument convincingly in your brief?

In addition, a lawyer who introduces graphics early in a proceeding can lay the groundwork for later use at trial or in another aspect of the case. This can also give the lawyer a sense of how receptive the judge is to the use of trial graphics in the case.

Here are some tips for using graphics in your brief:

  1. First, keep it simple. The judge is, after all, reading a document, and the images need to be easily incorporated into the document. Motion pictures and similar animations obviously won’t work well -- unless of course you are submitting an e-brief.
  2. Second, consider the amount of space you have to work with. The image needs to fit into the space appropriately.
  3. Third, using color is OK; just because a trial graphic is embedded in a court document doesn’t mean it has to be in black and white.
  4. Fourth, using trial graphics to simplify a complex aspect of the case is one of the best possible uses.
Trial graphics can effectively be used to illuminate motions in a number of areas of law, including bankruptcy, patent litigation, and litigation involving highly technical areas of scientific research.

In the first example below, the issue regarding the patent was the curvature of the rails in the equipment. As a portion of the case itself involved graphics in the form of the geometric curve, the curvature was hard to explain verbally but was much easier to delineate in a sketch.
graphics in motionsSecond, in a bankruptcy matter, a law firm needed to explain the Continuous Linked Settlement (CLS) system that was carried out by CLS Bank to provide settlement services. The CLS settlement process is very difficult to explain, so we developed a series of graphics for use in a brief that explained the settlement and clearing process.
graphics in briefs
Finally, in a pro bono assignment that we undertook involving the interpretation of a prohibition on the use of federal funds for stem-cell research, a key issue emerged regarding the definition of the term “research” in an amendment passed by Congress.

Through a series of graphics that were incorporated in a memorandum in opposition to a motion for summary judgment, we illustrated our client’s position that the term “research” can be conceptualized in many different ways and that the opposing brief, in selecting just one of those interpretations, was interpreting the term arbitrarily.

In Figure 1, for example, we showed that stem-cell research can be defined as separate from the derivation of embryonic stem cells and is not identical with the derivation process. In Figure 2, we showed that the opposing brief was trying to group stem-cell research and the derivation process together, a conclusion that was not justified by the statute. And in Figure 3, we showed that it is even possible to interpret the term “research” to encompass an entire area of inquiry, thus preventing federal funding of a whole type of research in a way that Congress could not have intended.
trial graphics filing

Tags: e-Briefs, Trial Graphics, Trial Consultants, Litigation Graphics, Trial Consulting, Patent Litigation, Science, Securities Litigation, Banking Litigation, Briefs, Pleadings, Bankruptcy

Collateralized Debt Obligations (CDOs) Explained for a Jury

Posted by Ken Lopez on Tue, Aug 23, 2011 @ 08:43 AM

by Ken Lopez

Quite often, the subject matter at issue in a major trial is very complex and technical and is not intuitively obvious for a jury composed of laypersons, or even a judge, to understand.

In fact, that’s why trial consulting companies like us emerged in the early 1990s – to help lawyers explain in a clear visual manner what’s at stake in a case, so that judges and jurors will be able to understand the facts and make a well reasoned decision.

As a Texas trial lawyer has written, “The typical jury has a 14th-grade education, a 12th-grade comprehension level, and a 9th grade attention span. The implications of this are important in presenting scientific or technical information to a jury. For one thing, it means you cannot assume the jury will have any pre-existing knowledge or understanding of the information you are trying to convey, particularly if it involves a scientific or technical matter.”

In cases involving product liability, patents, the environment, antitrust, and other areas of law, courtroom presentations ranging from the most basic photograph or chart to the most complex computer-generated presentation have been a staple for sophisticated litigators for decades.

using litigation graphics courtroom to persuade trial graphics a2l consulting

In securities litigation, however, lawyers have been much slower to adopt visual courtroom presentations that can help juries understand their cases. Yet as Wall Street has become much more complex than just stocks and bonds, quite often the issues in a securities trial have become every bit as opaque to the average juror with that 12th-grade comprehension level as a complicated patent infringement case would be.

Now, as litigation from the financial collapse of 2008 and 2009 is finding its way into court, jurors are being asked to understand and to pass judgment on complex financial matters such as collateralized debt obligations (CDOs).

A typical definition of a CDO is that it is “a type of structured asset-backed security (ABS) with multiple ‘tranches’ that are issued by special purpose entities (SPVs) and collateralized by debt obligations including bonds and loans.” This definition will make little or no sense to most jurors, and a lawyer who tries to present the concept on this level in a courtroom will have little or no success.

Below, we use a new presentation tool called Prezi to explain CDOs in an intuitive way that is tailored to help juror understanding.  Like much of our work in securities litigation, this is not a trial graphics-heavy presentation at all.  Rather, our work was spent on how to best tell the story more than how to show it.

Use the play button or your right arrow to step through the presentation.
Zoom in or out, move to other sections of the presentation and return
to the script by hitting the play or back key.

Prezi is a new type of presentation program that permits the litigator to create non-linear courtroom presentations and to escape the sameness that sometimes pervades PowerPoint exhibits. Rather than slides, Prezi relies on a large canvas or mind-map type of presentation that permits the viewers to zoom in and out of a visual story.

This Prezi exhibit shows how CDOs are created, packaged and sold and how the flow of mortgage income keeps them afloat in good times – and what happens when mortgage payments dry up.

Click me

demonstrative evidence provider

Tags: Trial Graphics, Courtroom Presentations, Trial Consulting, Trial Technology, PowerPoint, Securities Litigation, White Collar, Prezi, Information Design

6 Ways to Convey Size and Scale to a Jury

Posted by Ken Lopez on Mon, Jul 25, 2011 @ 09:30 AM


All good trial exhibits have one thing in common: They are able to appeal to juries by referring to ideas, principles, objects, or locations that jurors already know about in their daily lives.

For example, a trial lawyer may need to show how large, or how small, something at issue in the litigation actually is. An effective way of doing this is to relate it to the size or scope of an object with which a juror has personal experience.

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We have prepared many exhibits that work in this manner. Not only do they give the jurors useful information but they also do this in a manner that jurors will easily recall when it comes time to deliberate. If we can present something as being “as large as a football field,” for example, we can lock that picture into the jurors’ minds.

1)  HOW FAST: In the below graphic that we used in a medical malpractice case, evidence showed that a radiologist rushed his work and missed cancer diagnoses. He read X-ray films three times as fast as an average radiologist. What did that mean? Jurors know that “speed kills,” and a very effective trial exhibit compared that speed to traveling three times the speed limit on a highway – 210 miles per hour instead of 70. That intrinsically seems reckless.


2)  HOW MUCH TIME:  In the graphic below, evidence proved that conspirators in a government contract dispute in New Orleans had spent 3,548 minutes on the phone. That number by itself would probably mean nothing to a jury. We translated that fact into a graphic that showed that in 3,548 minutes, someone could drive from New Orleans to Wasilla, Alaska (an election year reference). In that amount of time, a lot of conspiring could be accomplished.

how to show scale in demonstrative evidence 

3)  HOW LITTLE IMPACT:  In a securities case, we likened the plaintiff’s allegation that a single stock purchase affected the stock price of a company for 14 months to the notion that a single runner’s taking the lead in a marathon for eight minutes affected all 35,000 contestants in the three- to four-hour race. That defies common sense, and jurors could conclude that the allegation regarding the stock price also defied common sense.

showing scale in litigation graphics 

4)  HOW MANY:  In a Miami discovery dispute, we provided a graphic (below) of Pro Player Stadium (the then name of what is now the city’s Sun Life Stadium), with a seating capacity of 75,000. If that was the universe of all the documents at issue, the number that related to one client was a small portion of one section of the stadium, we showed.

Discovery dispute scale 

5)  HOW LITTLE:  In an environmental case, our exhibit (below) showed that the cleanup costs at issue, when compared with the company’s annual sales, were the proverbial “drop in a bucket.” That is far easier for a juror to remember than the numbers $20 million out of $4.4 billion.

Drop in the bucket BaldYarn! 

6)  HOW MUCH:  In this environmental insurance coverage litigation exhibit, the capacity of an underground tank farm is related to above ground pools.  It was a small amount of property and the capacity of the tanks was surprising when conveyed in this way.

UST Underground storage tank volume infographics

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jury demonstrative evidence 

Tags: Energy Litigation, Litigation Graphics, Trial Presentation, Courtroom Presentations, Juries, Animation, Science, Environmental Litigation, Securities Litigation, White Collar, Medical Malpractice, Nuclear Power Plants, Information Design

Securities Litigation Graphics and Juror Communication

Posted by Ken Lopez on Thu, May 12, 2011 @ 11:00 AM

Presenting securities cases to juries can involve difficult problems. Many jurors may have investments in the stock market or in mutual funds, directly or through their retirement plans, and may have some sense of how securities markets work. Some jurors, on the other hand, find all financial matters to be daunting. Furthermore, even fairly sophisticated jurors don’t have a good knowledge of accounting terms or of securities law concepts such as “causation” and “fraud,” which may have quite different shades of meaning in the law from their meanings in everyday life.

Thus, it is extremely important to present securities cases, which may involve issues of insider trading, fraud, or self-dealing, in ways that a jury can understand based on their basic knowledge of how a market works and their day-to-day sense of fairness.

Using trial technicians for document intensive cases like securities litigation is mandatory

In 2009, Kevin LaCroix, an attorney and insurance executive, wrote on his blog that covers issues of directors and officers liability, that in a particularly complicated securities case, an attorney referred in his opening statement to “EBIDTA; purchase accounting; debt service; noncash earnings; nonoperational accounting entries; free cash flow; liquidity; and dividends.” Another opening statement cited “negative cash flow; generally accepted accounting principles; and market capitalization,” and another referred to “options exercises; hedging and hedging transactions; and tax advantages.”

LaCroix concluded, “It is not that juries are incapable of figuring out these kinds of things. The problem is that these kinds of things put an enormous burden on the lawyers, the witnesses and the court to keep things clear; to avoid letting the trial get bogged down in technical minutiae; and making sure the jury is neither confused nor bored to death.”

We have produced litigation graphics that are appropriate for jurors at all levels of knowledge. One basic and successful trial exhibit that we prepared simply asks, “What Is a Stock Exchange?” and responds that like a supermarket for groceries, a stock exchange is simply a central location to purchase the stocks of various companies. This is illustrated by a graphic of a supermarket and of the New York Stock Exchange, with examples of what is offered at each.

Trial Graphics: What is a stock exchange illustration?

Originally printed as a large format trial board, another of our litigation graphics that answers a more sophisticated question is composed of 50,000 small dots, each representing the trade of 10,000 shares of stock. One tiny dot in the vast matrix represents the trades that were the subject of the lawsuit involving allegedly improper laddering transactions. The caption next to the dot reads, “Defying common sense, this dot would have to affect all others.” This caption appeals to jurors’ sense of logic, and the vast sea of dots is a memorable image. 

Explaining securities litigation and laddering to jurors

In yet another case, we produced a set of line graphs in PowerPoint to show that over a period of time, a major investment bank was reducing its exposure to one country’s debt privately, while promoting the debt publicly. Again, a graphic illustration forms a clear depiction of a basic securities-law principle: One shouldn’t say one thing publicly while doing the opposite in private.

By appealing to a juror's common sense and using litigation graphics, a trial team can persuade even the most financially ignorant in securities litigation.

Tags: Trial Graphics, Litigation Graphics, Trial Presentation, Juries, Animation, PowerPoint, Illustration, Opening, Securities Litigation, White Collar, Information Design

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Ken Lopez founded A2L Consulting in 1995. The firm has since worked with litigators from all major law firms on more than 10,000 cases with over $2 trillion cumulatively at stake.  The A2L team is comprised of psychologists, jury consultants, trial consultants, litigation consultants, attorneys and information designers who provide jury consulting, litigation graphics and trial technology.  Ken Lopez can be reached at lopez@A2LC.com.


Tony Klapper joined A2L Consulting after accumulating 20 years of litigation experience while a partner at both Reed Smith and Kirkland & Ellis. Today, he is the Managing Director of Litigation Consulting and General Counsel for A2L Consulting. Tony has significant litigation experience in products liability, toxic tort, employment, financial services, government contract, insurance, and other commercial disputes.  In those matters, he has almost always been the point person for demonstrative evidence and narrative development on his trial teams. Tony can be reached at klapper@a2lc.com.

dr laurie kuslansky jury consultant a2l consulting

Laurie R. Kuslansky, Ph.D., Managing Director, Trial & Jury Consulting, has conducted over 400 mock trials in more than 1,000 litigation engagements over the past 20 years. Dr. Kuslansky's goal is to provide the highest level of personalized client service possible whether one's need involves a mock trial, witness preparation, jury selection or a mock exercise not involving a jury. Dr. Kuslansky can be reached at kuslansky@A2LC.com.

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